This term is used to describe a standard (Latin alphabet-based) keyboard. Why? Because the first six keys in the upper-left part of the keyboard spell out Q-W-E-R-T-Y. I suppose you could call it a QWERTYUIOP keyboard, but QWERTY is a lot easier to say. In case you are wondering why the QWERTY keyboard is arranged like it is, the original reason was to reduce the jamming of typebars in typewriters as they moved to strike the paper.
In 1932, August Dvorak developed what was intended to be a more efficient keyboard, in which he placed the vowels and the five most common consonants in the middle row, based on the idea that an alternating rhythm would be established between the right and left hands. Though the keys on the Dvorak keyboard were more efficiently arranged, it was and still is too much of a pain for people to switch from the familiar QWERTY arrangement. So, it looks like we're stuck with what we have. Sorry, Dvorak.