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macOS Keyboard Shortcuts

Startup | Finder Windows | Screenshots | Menu Commands | Universal Access | Mouse | Other

System Startup

Hold these keys immediately following the Macintosh startup chime until the screen appears.

Keyboard Shortcut Action
Hold X during startup Startup from Mac OS X (regardless of Startup Disk Preference)
Hold Option-Command-Shift-Delete during startup Bypass primary startup volume and seek a different startup volume (such as a CD or external disk)
Hold C during startup Start up from a CD that has a system folder
Hold N during startup Attempt to start up from a compatible network server (NetBoot)
Hold T during startup Start up in FireWire Target Disk mode
Hold Shift during startup Start up in Safe Boot mode to temporarily disable login items and non-essential kernel extensions
Hold Command-V during startup Start up in Verbose mode
Hold Command-S during startup Start up in Single-User mode

Finder Windows

The following shortcuts can be used when a Finder window is active.

Keyboard Shortcut Action
Command-W Close window
Option-Command-W Close all windows
Command-Right Arrow Expand folder (only in list view)
Option-Command-Right Arrow Expand folder and nested subfolders (only in list view)
Command-Left Arrow Collapse Folder (only in list view)
Option-Command-Up Arrow Open parent folder and close current window
Command-1 View Menu -> View as Icons
Command-2 View Menu -> View as List
Command-3 View Menu -> View as Columns


The following commands can be used to take screenshots (screen captures) within the Finder or any program.

Screenshots that are not copied to the clipboard are saved as a file on the Desktop.

Keyboard Shortcut Action
Command-Shift-3 Take a picture of the entire screen
Command-Shift-4 Take a picture of a selection (the cursor will turn into a crosshairs for selecting an area)
Command-Control-Shift-4 Take a picture of the screen and copy to the Clipboard
Command-Shift-4, then Spacebar Take a picture of the selected window

Menu Commands

These shortcuts can be used in place of selecting options from the Finder menu (as shown above).

Keyboard Shortcut Action
Shift-Command-Q Apple Menu -> Log out
Shift-Option-Command-Q Apple Menu -> Log out immediately
Shift-Command-Delete Finder Menu -> Empty Trash
Option-Shift-Command-Delete Finder Menu -> Empty Trash without dialog
Command-H Finder Menu -> Hide Finder
Option-Command-H Finder Menu -> Hide Others
Command-N File Menu -> New Finder window
Shift-Command-N File Menu -> New Folder
Command-O File Menu -> Open
Command-S File Menu -> Save
Shift-Command-S File Menu -> Save as
Command-P File Menu -> Print
Command-W File Menu -> Close Window
Option-Command-W File Menu -> Close all Windows
Command-I File Menu -> Get Info
Option-Command-I File Menu -> Show Attributes Inspector
Command-D File Menu -> Duplicate
Command-L File Menu -> Make Alias
Command-R File Menu -> Show original
Command-T File Menu -> Add to Sidebar
Command-Delete File Menu -> Move to Trash
Command-E File Menu -> Eject
Command-F File Menu -> Find
Command-Z Edit Menu -> Undo
Command-X Edit Menu -> Cut
Command-C Edit Menu -> Copy
Command-V Edit Menu -> Paste
Command-A Edit Menu -> Select All
Command-1 View Menu -> View as Icons
Command-2 View Menu -> View as List
Command-3 View Menu -> View as Columns
Command-B View Menu -> Hide Toolbar
Command-J View Menu -> Show View Options
Command - [ Go Menu -> Back
Command - ] Go Menu -> Forward
Shift-Command-C Go Menu -> Computer
Shift-Command-H Go Menu -> Home
Shift-Command-I Go Menu -> iDisk
Shift-Command-A Go Menu -> Applications
Shift-Command-F Go Menu -> Favorites
Shift-Command-G Go Menu -> Goto Folder
Command-K Go Menu -> Connect to Server
Command-M Window Menu -> Minimize Window
Option-Command-M Window Menu -> Minimize All Windows
Command-? Help Menu -> Open Mac Help
Command-Space Open Spotlight

Universal Access

These settings can also be changed by opening the Universal Access System Preference.

Keyboard Shortcut Action
Option-Command-* (asterisk) Turn on Zoom
Option-Command-+ (plus) Zoom in
Option-Command-- (minus) Zoom out
Control-Option-Command-* (asterisk) Switch to White on Black
Control-F1 Turn on Full Keyboard Access (enables the following five commands)
Control-F2 Highlight Menu (when Full Keyboard Access is enabled)
Control-F3 Highlight Dock (when Full Keyboard Access is enabled)
Control-F4 Highlight Active Window or next window behind it (when Full Keyboard Access is enabled)
Control-F5 Highlight Toolbar (when Full Keyboard Access is enabled)
Control-F6 Highlight Utility window (when Full Keyboard Access is enabled)
Command-F5 or fn-Command-F5 Turn VoiceOver on or off
Control-Option-F8 or fn-Control-Option-F8 Open VoiceOver Utility
Control-Option-F7 or fn-Control-option-F7 Display VoiceOver menu
Control-Option-; (semicolon) Enable / Disable VoiceOver Control-Option lock

Mouse Keys

Mouse keys allows you to move the mouse using the numeric keypad on the keyboard.

You can turn on Mouse Keys from within the Universal Access System Preference.

Keyboard Shortcut Action
8 Move Up
2 Move Down
4 Move Left
6 Move Right
1, 3, 7, and 9 Move Diagonally
5 Press Mouse Button
0 Hold Mouse Button
. (period on keypad) Release Mouse Button (after pressing 0)

Other Commands

Keyboard Shortcut Action
Option-Command-D Show/Hide Dock
Command-Tab Switch application
Tab Highlight next item
Command-Up Arrow Move up one directory
Command-Down Arrow Move down one directory
Page Up or Control-Up Arrow Move up one page
Page Down or Control-Down Arrow Move down one page
Option-Drag Copy to new location
Option-Command-Drag Make alias in new location
Command-Drag Move to new location without copying
Shift-Command-C Show Colors palette in application
Command-T Show Font palette in application
Option-Command-esc Force Quit
Control-Eject Restart, Sleep, Shutdown dialog box
Control-Command-Eject Quit all applications and restart
Command-click window toolbar button (upper right corner) Cycle through available views for the window's toolbar (dependent on the nature of the Finder or application window)
Command-` (above the tab key) Cycle through windows in application or Finder (if more than one window is open)
Function-Delete (laptops only) Forward Delete (deletes the character to the right of the cursor)
Option-Command-Eject or
Put the computer in Sleep Mode

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